New Semester – New Thesis

Austrian universities are back in session today, and I’m relieved at the start of a new school year. I’m entering my second year as a master’s student at the University of Vienna in the Department of Science, Technology and Society.  I took advantage of a new program to start my thesis early and submitted a proposal back in June for a case study of a very interesting project that developed both a new mouse containing human gene receptors and a mutated version of the MERS virus in order to study MERS (a deadly virus closely related to SARS).  Both the virus and the techniques they were using were so new that there wasn’t any regulation or guidance – so I thought I would look at how the existing governance structures handled these anomalies.  From the beginning I struggled with being a graduate student instead of a grants administrator. Despite the security clearance and position of public trust, I really hadn’t realized how much of the information I had as a grants manager is completely unavailable to the general public.  I struggled with how to introduce myself and also how to convince others just how interesting this case is. The same afternoon I received illuminating feedback from my advisor, I also received notice that none of the records I was seeking were considered public, thanks to a new law in 2014.  There can be no public discussion when the details remain in the dark.  https://unc.nextrequest.com/requests/17-431.  Despite the beautiful fall weather, a dark cloud settled on the way home from the Almabtrieb and stuck around for the week, aided by two very sick little kids.  I barely escaped the house this morning thanks to TV, nureflex and two fantastic and brave classmates.

View from the NIG rooftop

 

After relating my reservations and asking a few very good questions I was overjoyed when my advisor casually laid out the basics of a new thesis plan.  I’ll be comparing the international responses on the ethics of genome editing, most likely from the US, UK, and Germany.  This work will tie in with the International Symposium on Editing Genomes with CRISPR hosted by the University of Vienna happening this month and I’m very excited to get started.

 

Links:

https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24623/human-genome-editing-science-ethics-and-governance

https://nuffieldbioethics.org/project/genome-editing/ethical-review-published-september-2016

http://www.leopoldina.org/de/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/ethische-und-rechtliche-beurteilung-des-genome-editing-in-der-forschung-an-humanen-zellen-2017/

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Beautiful Bovines

In the fall cows come down from the high mountain pastures before the big snows come. In Tirol Almabtrieb is a big occasion: the cows are decorated and paraded through town. Long before the cows come into sight the sound we heard clanging cowbells. They came in groups of 5-6 about five minutes apart, and then at the end there were a lot of cows and herders almost running. 
Tirol is actually very far away from Vienna. We choose Kufstein because you could leave Vienna in the morning and reach the festival before the cows got there on a fast train. Actually I’m keenly aware of this right now as I take slow trains back to Kufstein from Salzburg to fetch our suitcase. Even though we realized within 3 minutes of boarding, it will take me 2.5 hours to get back to where we started. Then I get to travel home again! We stayed overnight although most of the visitors seemed to disappear by 5. That meant we had this morning to explore the fortress. Unlike Salzburg, Kufstein was besieged and changed hands several times. I think it’s the first time a castle has been so proud of the aggressors- the rolling cannons that pummeled the original owners into surrender are celebrated: Purlepaus and Weckauf. We even ate in a restaurant named for the cannon. 


Actually we tried some pretty weird new foods – a fried dough pocket filled with a kind of rotting cheese, a different shaped fried dough filled with creamed spinach and a fried dough bowl heaped with sauerkraut “Kiachl.” They were also wrapping frankfurter hot dogs in dough and frying them, but once you’ve had a corn dog, I don’t think you’d go back to that. 


The town of Kufstein is charming if a little touristy, one thing I found fascinating was how much of the tourism was automated. The museum of sewing machines was a single room with a button to push that started a bizarre dialogue while spotlighting different sewing machines. The lift to the fortress was controlled by a ticket reader and button and otherwise unmanned.

In any case I’m on a mission to recover a suitcase full of lederhosen, dirndls and schnapps. We couldn’t possibly leave that behind even though we had to leave those beautiful cows. 

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Wild Weekends

Back in Vienna and everything is familiar. The rhythm of kindergarten mornings, one child or the other crying about breakfast, getting dressed, passing the good luck piggies museum formal greetings in German and a handshake with a teacher. Agreeing to a slow ease into the new schedule,I pick them up early, we are all watching the clock. Which all means real weekends again. 


We kicked off the weekend with the Buskers festival -street performers from around the world. I enjoyed watching breakdancing and all one man circus. 
The next day we drove to the Castle Grimmenstein, a powerful family in crusading times, exiled when the Hapsburg came to power. The man running/restoring the castle had his last name changed to Grimmenstein, becoming the first in centuries. He’s fixing the lower castle up for his own wedding next August, so House Grimmenstein may rise again. Coming down from the castle we took one of those shortcuts that turns out to be longer and more arduous than you ever could have imagined. Luckily there were ripe blackberries in season. In the afternoon we went to a birthday party at a small ski resort used for mountain biking in the summer. The kids don’t really know how to ride bikes and fell down a lot, but everyone had a good time anyway. 

​The next day we travelled to Eggenburg for the renaissance festival and enjoyed the jousting tournament, roasted meat and medieval marching band. 

After the wild weekend we had another normal week followed by weekend festivals, first the Josefstädterstrasse Street Festival in our neighborhood and then a trip back to Znoijmo for the Vinobrani, a wine festival and medieval parade. 


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Oslo

Many of the friends we’ve made in Vienna are travelers like us, they are here temporarily and many have already left. The silver lining is that we get to visit! We arrived spontaneously in Oslo, Norway before our friends had even unpacked their boxes. We had an extra element of surprise because our flight landed early and we caught a bus two hours before we were supposed to. We even had time to meet the bus driver’s girlfriend in the Philippines over skype. The bus was fast and had built in car seats. After a snack of sardine paste on 25-grain bread we went to the Norwegian kindergarten to pick up the kids. Wow! I’ve never seen anything like it. Little blonds riding tricycles down a muddy hill in the rain, running up and asking incomprehensible questions. Tired children lounge in a glass room, both inside and outside at the same time. Inside children chop vegetables in an open kitchen. Clouds hang from the high ceilings and little treasures fill windows in the floor. There is a book about boogers on display. There are fifty pairs of galoshes and a special room where babies are crawling over soft obstacles. There are helpful teachers at every turn and it is not chaotic but by design. The kids were happy to see each other. At first it’s a normal play date, they don’t really realize we’re staying the whole weekend and seem to forget we live in another land. 


We had a great time exploring Oslo together. I rode the tiger of Olso. We climbed around on top of the opera, ate fish stew, fish cakes, fish and chips, and troll cookies. We went to a park filled with statues of naked people. Lots of people expressed disappointment that we did these things instead of exploring the fjords and nature of Norway, but we didn’t have a boat and we had a great time anyway. We ate at a posh fish restaurant in an upscale condo building on the water. 


On Saturday we went to a children’s festival in the fortress, where we learned about building log cabins, kayaking, and waiting in lines. Norwegians eat their Frankfurter hotdogs in thin pancake wraps instead of buns. This is strange. 


Sunday was Museums day, we started at the nobel peace center, took a ferry to the FRAM polar exploration museum, peeked at the Kon Tiki and visited Viking Ships. We finished the day at the folk museum, which is a large park filled with historic farmhouses, churches and other buildings. The word work on the Stave church is beautiful, the warm delicious fire roasted lefsa a delightful treat and the sound of the alpine horn, well, interesting. 
If we go back we’ll head straight to nature – in the dark with skis strapped to our feet and backpacks stuffed with canned fish and chocolate for a true Norwegian experience. Actually I really loved Oslo and I think our friends are very lucky to have such a cool place to call home. 

 

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The great USA adventure

My kids have already traveled more than most people will in their lifetime This year flying across the Atlantic alone with two small kids didn’t send me into a panic, we all looked forward to the trip. Even when our flight was delayed and we missed our connection and had to change terminals in Heathrow and JFK on extremely tight connections, we kept it together as a team. If only we could do as well getting to kindergarten and going to bed each night.  

Lots of people in Europe think about going on a great US adventure. I don’t think anyone ever had an itinerary like this 

RE-entry: Philadelphia – our first stop in the US was a shopping spree at Walmart, prompted by the fact that our luggage was hopelessly delayed or lost. We enjoyed time at the hotel pool, milkshakes and hoagies (sandwiches) and an excursion in a beautiful garden with an extensive outdoor model railroad before heading to a barbecue in the woods where we met the brides’ families and the kids occupied a fort. 
The Wedding

In an old Quaker Meeting set in the Pennsylvania woods my Aunt and her love, Jean promised to love and cherish each other in the presence of an official committee. We sat silently until friends and family started to share stories and wishes. After the meeting we all signed the contract as witnesses. A legal, gay, Quaker wedding, without any lawyers or priests, only heartfelt testimonies of support from family, friends and community. And then of course cake and dancing! 
One very cool place In Philadelphia for kids is the please touch museum, where Allison discovered Alice in Wonderland and may never be the same.  
Scouting Mission 

My best friend met us at Union Station and took us in for a week, it made it so easy for all of us to picture moving back next Spring/summer. It’s an easy train ride from downtown Philadelphia to downtown Washington DC, even easier when your bags are still lost and you are lovingly greeted in the station and whisked away. I loved reconnecting with friends and discovering new places like Wheaton Regional Park and the splash park in Takoma Park. We even stopped by Viers Mill Elementary, where Allison should start first grade next year. 
Rest Up

It’s rare to find a real vacation while traveling with two kids, but I think we all did at my in-laws house in Minnesota. We still did lots of activities and trips, but we also just enjoyed (ruining) the peace and quiet of the garden and being doted on by grandma. 
Into the wild

Duke joined us in Idaho and we spent six days in the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness in Idaho with my Dad, brothers Ben, Will and T, and Sisters Mandy and Daphne, niece Perry, nephew Noe, and husband Duke, Leo and Allison rode on our backs when they weren’t hiking along, and mules hauled our gear in 11 miles to our campsite at Ship Island Lake. Duke cooked all the food over the fire and we ate lots of fish and berries, told stories and explored the end of the world. We hiked out in one day and drove furiously over dirt roads to get dinner before the bar in Challis closed, then on to Boise where my sister in law dodged 13 deer and elk on a dark road. 
Back to civilization?

 Back in Boise it was time for the Idaho Fair, where we learned about potatoes, pet farm animals and sent the kids on rides with their cousins. I lost my wallet and it was turned in less than a hour later at the lost and found, people are honest, although not too honest in Idaho, the cash was gone. Luckily I had enough change to buy corn on the cob. Duke spent $30 on 2 turkey legs and I joked that we both got robbed at the fair. My favorite thing was a free roaming tortoise from the “animals of wizardry” exhibit that they’d taped a balloon to in order to keep track of it. The next day we went to the worlds largest bouncy house and me, my brother pat and his girlfriend, and my brother in law Jeff had a great time, I think the kids liked it too. 
Totality

🌒 

We got the tents out again and set up camp at our family cabin, duke and his buddy Alex dug a pit and we had a simple celebration for his birthday. They stayed up all night getting the fire ready for the pit roast. In the morning we hiked out of the trees to the rocks and took our specialty glasses and took glances at the slowly eclipsing sun. In the beginning it was hot, I borrowed sunscreen. As more and more of the sun was eclipsed it grew colder but only in the last 10 minutes was the darkness noticeable. We were lucky because there were neither clouds nor smoke in the sky, it was perfectly clear. During the totality we looked directly at the sun. It was so beautiful to see the ring of light around. There was also a 360• sunset and it was so cold. It took just as long for the moon to rescind, but we didn’t check so earnestly, only now and again on the hike back. After lunch we hiked around some more for a scavenger hunt, the sun beating down, and we wished it would go away again. Instead we sat down to a feast of pit roasted buffalo meat. 
We should have left the next day, but after finding our seats on the airplane we accepted an offer to give up our seats and fly the next day. We enjoyed the chance to spend a little more time with cousins, share our meal vouchers with friends and sleep in big comfy beds before the long journey back. 

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The Best Ribs in the World: A Supply Chain Journey

 

Baby's First Rib

(An Assignment for the course Comedo Ergo Sum at the University of Vienna, Science, Technology and Society)

The first time I ate ribs at the Strandcafe, I was visiting Vienna in 2008.  Four of us ordered six enormous racks of ribs and ridiculously large beers.  I felt gluttonous for eating a single rack and the men struggled to eat two a piece as a mark of pride.  In 2013 my daughter, age 1, tasted her first ribs.  Recently, June 16, 2017, I tucked into my own platter of ribs, handily finishing all and a liter of beer besides. Living in Austria has transformed me into a pork eater. Later the strange pork sweats came and with it a few questions.  Where do they get so many pork ribs?

Austrians eat more Pork, but Americans eat more meat overall and also love pork.  Austrian pork tastes better and pork production is an open process that Austrians take pride in.   In his depiction of the transformation of American pork consumption, Horowitz (2005) describes how chicken and beef took over the American table and dry cured hams and bacon took the place of barrel salt pork. Horowitz’s story begins with a ribs feast in little house on the prairie after the pigs have been brought in from the woods and butchered.  While today’s genetically selected, mechanically fed pigs have 4 additional ribs and economies of scale have taken over the slaughter, cutting and preservation of meat, pork ribs are largely the same.  When Strandcafe claim’s the best ribs in Vienna, they might as well claim the best ribs in the world. 

Strandcafe Pork Cuts

The proprietor of the Strandcafe chatted openly about their process: 3 times a year they buy 38 tons of ribs frozen, they store 8 tons on site and keep the rest in warehouses in Vienna.  On a good Sunday they serve 1 ton of ribs.  In the summer 2 tons of ribs go to waste, thawed ribs that don’t end up on the grill and the ends chopped off to make sure every order is fair.  Strandcafe is strict about serving only pork from Austria.  I followed the ribs back to the source, returning twice to Strandcafe during the process.  

About 60% of the tons of ribs come from Corinthia through the firm Marcher, a third generation family business and the largest meat distributor in Austria. Marcher processes 1 million pigs a year.  A state of the art pork processing facility in Villach boasts that,  “the uninterrupted cooling chain, automated checking and measuring systems, inventory management in fully automated box storage units guarantee product safety.” emphasizing safety and maximizing use of the livestock.  Although the ribs will end up at Strandcafe, the feet will end up in a 24 ton frozen container shipment to China.

In 2010 The Slaughterhouse in Klagenfurt celebrated its 100 year anniversary with a family festival.  Renovated in 2002 it handles most of the Corinthian pigs for Marcher. The Verein Gegen Tierfabriken (VGT -Association against animal factories) released videos of mishandling in 2015 drawing attention to the slaughterhouse workers.  Certainly the strains of the job are considerable. The operating agency of the Slaughterhouse, Stürzenbecher, invested 50,000 euros in personnel training and monitoring equipment in addition to fines.  Another Marcher Slaughterhouse in Graz offers live video screenings (Kattinger, 2017).  

The Egger family at the Vulgo-Monik-hof in Poggersdorf raises 1,200 pigs at a time for the Klagenfurt Slaughterhouse (Griessner, 2017).  Two buildings, contain 8 sections holding between 130 and 160 pigs each. Automatic feeding and ventilation systems are built in and strict regulations set by the Austrian government inform the design and operations of the facility. Antibiotics are given to ill pigs, but not systematically included in the feed (Eine Saugute Idee, 2016).  Gabrielle Egger reports that every 14 days they purchase piglets from the region weighing between 31 and 33 kilos and fatten them for 4 months to about 120 kg (Griessner, 2017).  114 tons of ribs, would be approximately 31,666 pigs a year (assuming 3.6K of ribs per 120K pig).  Marcher doesn’t provide data on their farmers, but with 3,600 pigs per year, 10 farms of this size could provide the ribs for Strandcafe.   

Irene Buchacher, a kind and very responsive quality manager at Marcher told me,

Most of the fattening pigs are Austrian 3-breeds-crossing pigs. The mother sow is a combination of the breeds Large White and Landrace. This combination results fertility, reproductivity, stress resistance and best meat quality. As a boar breed, the Pietrain is very common. The Pietrain is a meat breed, is eager to mate and has the best feed conversion.

Pig BreedsFrom a promotional Children’s Book, Schnitzel, Wo kommst du Hier ( Where does my Schnitzel come from?)

The piglets come from smaller farms, like those run by sisters, Brigitte Kriegl-Kuess und Renate Fritz, who are careful with the feed and temperature as well as impregnation (Krojnik & Mak, 2016).  The Kriegl-Kuess’s breed naturally while the Fritz’s rely on artificial insemination.  The Agricultural Service (Landwirtschaftskammer) brings new technologies to farms.  The Optizucht project (Pfeiffer, 2016) follows the growth of 9,500 piglets and is genotyping 1,050 Sau, the aim is to be able to identify saus with high fertility potential before their first litter.  Computer assisted sperm analysis to select the right Boar (Nagl, 2017) is also spreading in use.   

The pork industry in Austria has a long tradition and seems to have come through some difficult times with a focus on high technology and health and welfare regulations aimed at long-term production.   The supply chain is closely dependent, but not integrated, and an active watchdog group prevents complacency.  In any case, I went back again last Thursday for ribs at the Strandcafe.   

 

RibsThis photo is from Strandcafe ca. 2014, before the renovation – we’re always too busy eating to take pictures of our food.

 

Links:

 

Strandcafe:  http://www.strandcafe-wien.at/en/

Marcher: https://www.marcher.at/en-US

 

References

Buchacher, Irene. (2017). Email Correspondence.

Greissner, D. (2017). Zu Besuch bei 1200 Mastschweinen (At home with 1200 fattening pigs)  

Landwirtschafterskammer Kärtner. https://ktn.lko.at/zu-besuch-bei-1200-mastschweinen+2500+2555681

Horowitz, R. (2005). Putting Meat on the American Table. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, MD.

Kattinger, A. (08.02.2017) Schlachthof verkauft seltene Fleischstücke im Web. Kurier.at https://kurier.at/genuss/schlachtbetrieb-marcher-schlachthof-installiert-web-cam-und-verkauft-seltene-fleischstuecke-im-web/245.345.634 Accessed 17 July, 2017.

(5.06.2016). Eine Saugute Idee. Kliener Zeitung Karten http://www.pressreader.com/austria/kleine-zeitung-kaernten/20160605/282136405673421 Accessed 17 July, 2017.

Krojnik, L, Mak, A. (2016)  Erfolgsgeschichte im Doppelpack. (Success Story in a Pair) Landwirtschafterskammer Kärtner. https://ktn.lko.at/erfolgsgeschichte-im-doppelpack+2500+2455502 . Accessed 17, July 2017.

Nagl, F. 2017. Für jeden Betrieb den passenden Eber. (A Fitting Boar for Every Firm) Landwirtschafterskammer Karten. https://ktn.lko.at/für-jeden-betrieb-den-passenden-eber+2500+2580627. Accessed 17, July 2017.

Pfeiffer, C. (2017) Projekt “OptiZucht” für gute Mütter und vitale Ferkel.  (Project OptiZucht for Good Mothers and Vital Piglets) Landwirtschafterskammer Kärtner. https://ktn.lko.at/schweine+2500++1302403

Verband Österreichischer Schweinebauern. (No date) Schnitzel, wo kommst du hier? (Schnitzel, where do you come from?) Druckerei Haide, Schönau, Austria.

Verien Gegen Tierfabriken. (16.11.2016) Schlachthof: Stürzenbecher Vieh- und Pferde- FleischhandelsgesmbHhttp://vgt.at/actionalert/schlachthofskandal/01.php Accessed on July 17, 2017.

 

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Becoming Irrational – Elimination Diets and the Paradox of Choice

(An Assignment for the course Comedo Ergo Sum at the University of Vienna, Science, Technology and Society)

Both labeling regimes and discerning consumers have a difficult time fitting new foods into categories.  Genetically modified and functional food products change how conceptions of ‘natural’ and ‘healthy’ are applied to foods.  Regulation experts Lezuan and Schneider say this instability, “throws consumers into a condition of restlessness” (2012) or the ‘paradox of choice.’  Donna Haraway narrates this confusion:

“I cannot go to an agility meet to run with my dog without tripping over brochures and booths for natural foods, scientifically formulated foods, immune-function-enhancing foods, homemade-ingredients foods, foods for doggy vegans, raw organic foods that would not please vegans at all, freeze-dried-carrot fortified foods, food-delivery devices to help out dogs who are alone too much, and on and on. Indeed, diets are like drugs in this nutritional ecology, and creating demand for “treatment” is crucial to market success” (2012, p. 97).

Like drugs, diets are a major industry with heavy marketing that plays on our insecurities and invents new health problems we didn’t know we had. As caretakers, providing meals is a labor intensive, regular and meaningful form of care.  How does uncertainty about new foods and the idea of the restless consumer play a role in the rise of diet-based alternative diagnostics and therapy for syndromes with multiple unclear causation such as ADHD, Autism, ODD and Eczema?

Elimination Diets are an extreme reaction to the paradox of choice.  Elimination diets begin with a very basic diet for 2-5 weeks. They are considered effective when symptoms abate.  The actual diets vary based on the symptoms and intuition of the person – but some of the basic foods are chicken and lamb, potatoes and rice and pears, an elimination diet for dogs with non-seasonal pruritic dermatitis is based on amino acids and potatoes (Kawarai, et al., 2010).   After symptoms clear, foods are gradually reintroduced to identify reactions.  In direct contrast to the convenience, variety and novelty of modern food choices, elimination diets entail a return to basics, careful planning, documentation, and discipline.  There are two basic kinds of elimination diets, diagnostic diets aimed at finding reactions to specific foods, and therapeutic diets aimed at relieving symptoms long term.  While the first is growing in acceptance to uncover adverse reactions that do not involve an immune response (such as lactose intolerance), the use of elimination diets is more controversial for metabolic, toxic, and psychological reactions to food or food additives. On one hand, elimination diets involve a scientific method, controlled introduction of stimuli and observation, on the other hand they are largely unsupported by common medical practice.  Researchers Nanda Rommelse and Jan Buitelaar (2013) describe the controversy over long-term elimination diets in the treatment of ADHD as whether the diet itself or the structuring nature of the diet are responsible for behavioral improvements.  The scientific research is unsettling, research shows a link to food additives, but also to neonatal care, to genetics and family relationships. Even when drugs are available and preferred by the medical system, parents, health care practitioners and politicians are concerned about the “overprescription of medication, particularly psychostimulants, and about potential long term side-effects” (Rommelse & Buitelaar, 2013, p. 201).

In Autism, ‘biomedicine’ is a term for alternative therapies that progress from an elimination diet, such as the gluten free/casein free diet or Select Carbohydrates Diet, to nutritional supplementation, to chelation treatments to remove heavy metals. Silverman (2012) explores the line between rationality and irrationality in Parents devotion to their children through this process.   “Parents describe the work of caring for affected children, including the use of resources, training in medical techniques, and hours of effort, as an act of love, in favor of a description of this work as attentive, knowledgeable labor.” (Silverman, 2012, p. 357).  It is this personalization and strategic coping with multicausal syndromes that challenges the clinical trial system.

Eczema BabyWhen my daughter was diagnosed with severe eczema at four months, it was at once a relief to have an diagnosis, and a challenge to not have a solution.  We were given a steroid-based cream that would resolve the symptoms, but told not to use it because of the long-term side effects.  As a baby, my daughter was already on a limited diet and we slowed down the introduction of new foods.  I myself did an elimination diet because allergens in the breast milk might be responsible.  Gradually we realized one of the triggers was the high PH of the natural laundry detergent we used for her diapers, another was hot humid weather, she had allergies to milk and eggs, but even as it got better, the eczema was still there.  We saw a specialist who explained that predisposition to allergies, eczema and asthma are all genetically linked and that a lack of sleep would also make it worse, we spoke with a homeopathic specialist who asked questions about whether it was weeping or seeping (weeping) and recommended a remedy distilled from scraped boils. After all that effort, the symptoms really improved and we continued the regime.  It is really quite easy to become irrational.  When she was 16 months old we moved to Austria.  Austria forbids GMOs and beans and peanuts are rare. Baby food is pure and healthy.  We could relax.  A few months after we moved to Austria the eczema disappeared, making only a brief reappearance on a trip back to the US.

Hugh Gusterson, author of Decoding the Debate on “Frankenfood,” warns us not to lump all Genetic Modified food together, to try and differentiate between different types and methods of genetic modification. Gusterson also indicated in 2006 that the US is undergoing a collective experiment in terms of Genetically Modified Foods.  The experiment is double-blind, in that in the US, neither consumers nor their doctors know what genetic modifications have occurred to their food stuffs. Anecdotal evidence that allergies are on the rise could not be confirmed because of the differences in definitions of allergy and reactions, different methods of diagnosis, bias toward sufferers in participation in studies, and the timing and frequency of evaluations (Sicherer, 2011 p. 597).  Tracking the rise of eczema in dogs has also been difficult (Griffin & DeBoer, 2001).   Allergies have specific and acute reactions, but difficulties tracing them highlight how complex GMO population studies would be. American consumers are participating in the experiment, but is anyone collecting the data?  Unexplained syndromes can easily unsettle this tacit participation.  The elimination diet results when Caretakers choose not to subject their loved ones to the experiment.

 

References

Griffin, C., DeBoer, D. (2001) The ACVD task force on canine atopic dermatitis (XIV): clinical manifestations of canine atopic dermatitis, Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 81(3), 255-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-2427(01)00346-4.

Haraway, D. (2012) Value-added dogs and lively capital in Lively Capital: Biotechnologies, Ethics, and Governance in Global Markets (Experimental futures) Ed.  Rajan, Kaushik Sunder.(pp. 93-120). Duke University Press. Kindle Edition.

Gusterson, H. (2005). Decoding the Debate on “Frankenfood”. In B. Hartmann, B. Subramaniam & C. Zerner, Making Threats: Biofears and Environmental Anxieties (pp. 109-133). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Kawarai, S., Ishihara, J., Masuda, K., Yasuda, N., Ohmori, K., Sakaguchi, M., . . . Tsujimoto, H. (2010). Clinical efficacy of a novel elimination diet composed of a mixture of amino acids and potatoes in dogs with non-seasonal pruritic dermatitis. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 72(11), 1413-21.

Lezuan, J., & Schneider, T. (2012). Endless Qualifications, Restless Consumption: The Governance of Novel Foods in Europe. Science as Culture, 21(3), 365-391.

Silverman, C. (2012) Desperate and rational. in Lively Capital: Biotechnologies, Ethics, and Governance in Global Markets (Experimental futures) Ed.  Rajan, Kaushik Sunder.(pp. 354- 384). Duke University Press. Kindle Edition.

 

 

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